International agreements on migration are becoming increasingly important in today`s globalized world. With the rise of migration due to various reasons such as economic growth, political instability or climate change, countries are coming together to develop policies and frameworks to manage migration and ensure the protection of human rights.
The United Nations is a key player in the development of international agreements on migration. In 2018, the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM), a non-legally binding agreement that sets out 23 objectives for managing migration at the national, regional and global levels. These objectives include improving data collection on migration, providing access to basic services for migrants, and addressing the root causes of migration.
While the GCM is not legally binding, it provides a framework for countries to work together and share best practices. However, not all countries have signed onto the agreement. The United States and a number of European countries, including Hungary, Poland, and Austria, have declined to sign the agreement, citing concerns about potential loss of sovereignty and the potential for increased migration.
In addition to the GCM, there are other international agreements that address specific aspects of migration. For example, the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, adopted in 1951, defines who is a refugee and outlines the rights and obligations of signatory states to protect refugees. The Convention also provides for the possibility of resettlement in third countries for refugees who cannot return to their home country.
Similarly, the International Labour Organization (ILO) has developed a number of conventions to protect the rights of migrant workers. These conventions cover issues such as migrant workers` rights to fair wages and working conditions, access to social protection, and protection against exploitation and trafficking.
While international agreements on migration are important, they can only be effective if they are implemented by individual countries. Implementation can be a challenge, particularly in countries where there is political opposition to migration. However, countries that have successfully implemented international agreements have seen positive outcomes, including increased economic growth and social cohesion.
In conclusion, international agreements on migration are crucial for managing migration and protecting human rights. The UN`s Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration provides a framework for countries to work together, but not all countries have signed onto the agreement. There are also other important agreements, such as the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the ILO conventions on migrant workers` rights. The success of these agreements depends on their implementation by individual countries.